Friday, June 5, 2020

Pain of Isolation - Literature Essay Samples

Notes from Underground written by Fyodor Dostoevsky and Grendel written by John Gardner are both novels which contain characters who suffer immensely as the novel progresses. Notes from Underground is a novel about a man, deprived of beneficial social interactions, who is trying to relate the world to European literature but is failing completely. The novel Grendel reflects Grendel’s twelve years at war and his inability to accept the beauty of the human mind. What both of these characters are suffering from is leading to their isolation from the rest of the world and this is ultimately their weakness. â€Å"Why, we don’t even know where this â€Å"real life† lives nowadays, what it really is, and what it’s called. Leave us alone without books and we’ll get confused and lose our way at once—we won’t know what to join, what to hold on to, what to love or what to hate, what to respect or what to despise† (Dostoevsky 91). This is a perfect example of the underground man choosing to isolate himself from society and contemplate all the things that could happen if humans were left alone without books. He is choosing to suffer by trying to figure this out because it does nothing but frustrate him. â€Å"I understood that the world was nothing; a mechanical chaos of casual, brute enmity on which we stupidly impose our hopes and fears. I understood that, finally and absolutely, I alone exist.† Grendel has this thought when he is being attacked by a bull and thinks that because he is being attacked, the whole world is destructive just like the bull. Although Grendel is suffering from being attacked by the bull, he is using it as something more to suffer from, He is making himself feel like he is alone and the only one who suffers. He then uses this experience to find the existence of such patterns, the patterns being suffering. Both these examples show readers that Grendel and the underground man are suffer ing to an extent further than necessary. They are using their personal experiences and isolating themselves to turn the situation around to feel like it is them against the world when in reality everyone suffers. Suffering is the main concept the authors are trying to incorporate throughout their texts. In Grendel, we get to see what Grendel goes through and how he actually feels rather than what was portrayed of Grendel in the novel Beowulf. In Grendel, Grendel truly does suffer. Grendel is suffering the pain of isolation. Grendel has his mother to build a relationship with but she lacks the ability to speak leading him to feel alone. Throughout the novel we find Grendel speaking to nonliving elements and never hearing a response, trapping him in his own thoughts. â€Å"So childhood too feels good at first, before one happens to notice the terrible sameness, age after age† (Gardner 9). Here, Grendel is talking about being a child and even then feeling like an outsider. Age after age, he finally starts realizing that he is going through the same circle of isolation, and this is what he suffers from most. At first he is so happy to be experiencing what he is because it is all new but on ce he had experienced it and realized he was alone through it he figured out it was not what he wanted. â€Å"I would feel, all at once, alone and ugly, almost—as if Id dirtied myself—obscene. The cavern river rumbled far below us. Being young, unable to face these things, I would bawl and hurl myself at my mother and she would reach out her claws and seize me, though I could see I alarmed her (I had teeth like a saw), and she would smash me against her fat, limp breast as if to make me part of her flesh again† (Gardner 17). This is when Grendel talks about suffering even as a child. Grendel, unable to control his ugliness and not able to face it at such a young age, would throw himself at his mother, scaring her. He knew this scared her, yet he did it. This shows readers that Grendel did not care to make the relationship with his mother better and because he could not control his ugliness he would try to make the case worse. Grendel is humanized in this secti on so readers do not judge him for his poor choices and so they can see how he is suffering but it is still hard to have pity on such a creature who has no desire to interact positively with his surroundings. In Notes from Underground, the underground man considers himself a free man. He is suffering from self-inflicting pain, which he is choosing to do. This is shown when he will not accept the fact that 2+2=4, when it has been proven by mathematicians. The choice of whether or not to accept this is his own but contradicting it after knowing it has been proven is what makes him suffer. What is the point of doing this one might ask? The underground justifies this with logical arguments, which is very confusing for the readers since his â€Å"logical arguments† are rather illogical to us. â€Å"Of course, what don’t people think up out of boredom! Why, even gold pins get stuck into other people out of boredom, but that wouldn’t matter. What’s really bad (this is me talking again) is that for all I know, people might even be grateful for those gold pins† (Dostoevsky 18). This is evidence here that the underground man is choosing to suffer as an alternative to being bored. This is the difference between the underground man and Grendel. Grendel actually suffered from isolation while the underground man is suffering because he is overthinking and trying to find an explanation for everything and anything. Maybe this is telling readers that the underground man actually enjoys suffering and is enduring it because he can and realizes the pain of it. â€Å"And why are you so firmly, so triumphantly convinced that only the normal and positive—in short, only well-being is advantageous to man? Doesn’t reason ever make mistakes about advantages? After all, perhaps man likes something other than well-being? Perhaps he loves suffering just as much? Perhaps suffering is just as advantageous to him as well-being? Man sometimes loves suffering terribly, to the point of passion, and that’s a fact.† (Dostoevsky 25). Here we see that the underground man is trying to justify that man could possibly enjoy suffering. When one is suffering they are conscious of what is happening to them. They know that what they are going through is not something they would let happen willingly. Then he suggests that the consciousness of knowing is causing the suffering. Both novels, Notes from Underground and Grendel, contain characters which suffer immensely. Although readers notice that in Notes from Underground, the underground man is choosing to suffer because of his boredom and isolation from mankind, we can see that Grendel is suffering because of his inability to communicate with others. Both characters are suffering but it is evident that one is suffering without the choice. Gardner is using human characteristics to make Grendel more relatable to humans and make us sympathize with him. We have clear evidence that Grendel is suffering and unable to fix it while we see that the underground man could just stop by overthinking and analyzing everything. The meaning of the texts is to show readers the different types of suffering. This is shown using their personal experiences and isolating themselves to turn the situation around to feel like it is them against the world when in reality everyone suffers.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

How does social media affect political participation of millennials - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2358 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/06/30 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: Millennials Essay Political Parties Essay Social Media Essay Did you like this example? Social media plays a distinguished role in todays society, especially the lives of Millennials. The majority of Millennials use some form of social media sites and with the amount of political content on these various sites, it can influence viewers opinions more especially during election time. This generation group is a large group of adults that will have a significant impact on the political landscape in the near future. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How does social media affect political participation of millennials" essay for you Create order Since Millennials will comprise a large portion of voters in the upcoming elections, their political participation, or the lack of, will impact the outcome of the elections. There are several pros using social media as an outlet to receive political updates. Political candidates are able to interact directly with the public which allows people not to just be voters but active participants as well. Millennials constantly have their phones in their hands allowing them to get the latest information on social media. Although social media may be an outlet for people to receive political information, social media is highly used for slander and information is distorted by inaccurate and misleading facts. If social media is used correctly, there can be a positive effect on the political participation of millennials in the age of technology. Social media is defined as computer intermediated tools that allow people or companies to create, share, or exchange information, career interests, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual groups and networks (Wikipedia.org). Social media has turned into a rising and prevalent resource today. It is the most utilized and reasonable method for correspondence among the Millennial in todays age of technology. As stated by Boyd and Ellison, Social Networking Sites are continuously attracting academic and numerous other industries research due to their ability to reach the public and affordability. In this way, social media is considered as one of the most successful learning gadgets which enhances relational abilities and information. Kaur and Kaur analyzed the use of social media and how it impacts people and concluded that that social media sites are found to act as a major social influence which impacts the personal lives of the users. The development and prominence of social media have m ade it simple for an individual to communicate with close friends or even a complete stranger. So, one can extend their social circle of friends with the use of social media. The Millennial generation is also known as Generation Y or the generation that follows directly after Generation X. Generation Y consists of people born during 1980 and 2000. In simpler words, the people within this generation are within the age group of 18-34 years. This population is also known as the Net Generation because they have grown up with a majority of the technological advancements (Kavitha and Bhuvaneswari). According to the Harris Poll, a survey organized to indicate the usage of social media by age groups, Millennials have the most social media usage out of all of the age groups. This study indicates that sixty percent of social media usage is done by Millennials. Millennials use technology to collect data, share information and communicate with each other. Today, these new technologies help to provide flexibility in collaborative learning, stimulate creative ideas, and increase interpersonal relationships of the millennials. This approach is engaging with young peop le as a platform and space for activities has created a positive and negative effect (Kavitha and Bhuvaneswari). Social media has become one of the most efficient mediums for the transfer of information and knowledge across the world. Online media, which includes Internet news, blogs, and social media networking sites, are transforming the relationship between the media and citizens. The instantaneous availability of information through smartphones enhance changes in the political debate. Although social media sites such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are not necessarily created to spread political news, they have the potential to do so. Twitter and Facebook have become instrumental in organizing campaigns. They allow voters and activists to easily share news and information such as campaign events with each other. During the 2016 Presidential campaign, Donald Trump used social media, specifically Twitter, heavily because he said it helps get his point of view out there and which is probably the main reason why he won the presidency. Political campaigns can tap into a depth of information or analytics about the people who are following them on social media and can customize their messages based on the demographi cs. More than one-third of the population has a Facebook page, however, fewer than ten percent of Americans said they often followed Facebook recommendations for news. According to Winograd and Hais (2009), Millennials are also particularly adept in the use of peer-to-peer communication technologies such as Facebook, which will increasingly be used to inform and shape public opinion (p. 86). According to the American Press Institute (2015), 88 percent of Millennials get some form of news from Facebook. While this number may be encouraging, it is deceiving because less than half of Facebook-using Millennials are intentionally looking for news on the social media site (American Press Institute, 2015, para. 15). Many politicians have increasingly realized the increasing growth in the use of Facebook and took it as an opportunity to reach citizens and engage with them in the political process. Many national leaders have also turned to Twitter to reach out to supporters and raise money for th eir political campaigns. During his presidential candidacy, Barack Obama had his own Twitter feeds which he used for presidential and campaign purposes. Average citizens have used Twitter to spread the news. Users tweet during political rallies and used special hashtags to comment on issues such as healthcare, education, unemployment etc. Twitter is used less by Millennials, but according to Duggan (2015), 23 percent of Millennials use the platform daily for personal interests. Twitter is used more for status updates so Twitter users may be actively seeking news, compared to Facebook users. YouTube is another site that is heavily used by Millennials. The American Press Institute (2015) reports that 83 percent of Millennials use YouTube to receive news (para. 7). YouTube recently started airing political debates and also has the debates available after they are aired. Former President Barack Obama had an online town hall meeting using YouTube where he answered questions on the econom y, national security etc. Seeing that the majority of Millennials use YouTube, it is a potential political news source for them and may influence their political behavior. According to Fry (2015), there are nearly 75 million Millennials, ages 18-34, out of the roughly 322 million people in the United. Excluding the 23 percent of U.S. residents under the age of 18, there are 248 million people of voting age in the country. That means Millennials make up almost one-third of voting-aged citizens. Despite a large number of voting-age Millennials, they may not participate in informal political processes, such as voting, at rates that older generations do. According to the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), Millennials made up 19 percent of all voters in the 2012 primary election, with about half of all Millennials turning out to vote. Millennials did have a significant impact on that election, but the turnout in the 2012 election was less than the 2008 election which shows that Millennials overwhelmingly favored Obama. This proves that unless Millennials have a candidate that they support, it is possible they may not turn out to vote at all. Winograd and Hais (2009) state that the Millennial Generation is larger and more ethnically diverse, as well as more technologically proficient than any generation before (p. 45). The popularity and widespread use of Facebook and Twitter are of interest in relation to the question how to do of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube influence Millennials political behavior because it shows the significance of social media in Millennials daily lives. Millennials may participate in political communications or activities on social media, but the same cannot be said about their participation in formal political processes. Vivaldi (2010) writes, There is significant disagreement in both academic and popular writing about the degrees of (dis)engagement among young adults in the U.SSome scholars holdthat there is a pervasive, and perhaps even unprecedented, culture of political apathy among young adults in the U.S., (p. 372). It appears that this political apathy among Millennials may still exist. Little (2009) explains that in a study, 76 percent of young people think politics are important, but only 24 percent said they had actually had an interest in them. (p. 120). He als o explains that 41 percent of those surveyed did not know the difference between left and right wing politics (Little, 2009, p. 120). While this study was conducted with youth in the U.K., it is still important because it shows that political apathy is prominent amongst young people in places all over the world. The prominence of social media sites has made them an influencer in the media world. Fresno Garcia et al. (2016) explain that social media is an independent actor that has the ability to shape audience attitudes at the same level of professional, or traditional media (p. 23). Through a social media analysis, Fresno Garcia et al. (2016) identify three types of social media influencer: disseminator, engager and leader (p. 23). An influencer, who could be a politician and opinion leader, could have a substantial effect on a Millennial voter through a social media site. In other words, social media may influence Millennials more than traditional forms of media. What makes Millen nials so connected to social media sites like Facebook and Twitter is their connection to technology in general. Miller (2013) states that Millennials demand constant access to technology and are able to maintain multiple technological activities at once (para. 8). This results in a constant flow of information, and a desire for more (Miller, 2013, para. 8). While there may be a wealth of information on the internet, Miller (2013) explains that this may create a divide between Millennials and political information that is accurate and inaccurate (para. 12). The massive amount of information Millennials have access to may be a negative influence as it could limit their ability to distinguish between valid content and self-broadcasted content, meaning the information may not be true. Some argue that social media is full of fake viral news and it seems less important to know where the source derived from. Although they may have access to a great amount of information, they may not choose to consume political information, leaving them ignorant when it comes to many political matters. Botterill and Dun (2015) concur with Millers assessment; according to their research, Millennials use social media predominantly for entertainment or socializing (p. 537). Their research points to the notion that Millennials do not look to social media for poli tical information. However, recently that may be changing, as there is an increasing amount of political content on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. It seems that Millennials tend to focus less on traditional media. Mindich (2005) explains that this decline in traditional media consumption has produced a generation of adults who barely have an outline of what they need to make an informed decision when voting (p. 9). Political messages communicated through social media often do not contain adequate information to inform a potential voter. Many times, they are shared from an opinionated or illegitimate news source. This shift from traditional media to new media leaves Millennials at a disadvantage when it comes to receiving political communication and therefore has an impact on their political behavior. Millennials political participation can vary greatly. Gilman and Stokes (2014) explain that in the 2008 presidential election, Obama captured 66 percent of Millennial voters (which was similar to the 2012 election), and was a dramatic increase compared to past elections (p.58). While this was an increase in political activity for Millennials, Gilman, and Stokes state that this is not the new norm. They explain that Millennials are a pragmatic generation, which undermines a long-term allegiance to one political party (p.58). In other words, Millennials may be more focused on results and care less about which party will provide results. Gilman and Stokes (2014) write, Millennials are not eschewing politics as much as they do not see politics as a viable option for achieving the outcomes they believe are important. Beyond voting, other traditional forms of civic engagementhave also decreased for Millennials (p. 58). This has led Millennials to find more accessible ways to participate in communities and in the world†one of those ways is through social media. Almost half of Millennials who use social networking sites use social media to like or promote political material, 42 percent to post thoughts on issues, and 36 percent to encourage others to act (Gilman Stokes, 2014, p. 58). While this is not formal political activity, it may be the preferred way. Millennials choose to be politically active. The question that experts are now asking is, does the activity on social media translate to real actions in the world? Vatikiotis (2014) states that the advent of social media has revived the discussion on media engagement and participation of citizens (p. 293). He points to research that shows that social media encourages the public to engage in political discussion, but that these discussions lack the analytical and critical value that traditional media has (Vatikiotis, 2014, p. 298). A tweet or Facebook post is weak online political activism and has little or no political impact. A common theme that Millennials have self-identified is that they are tech savvy (Gagnier, 2008, p. 33). Other characteristics Millennials identified are that they are educated, open-minded, and involved. In Gagniers study, Millennial participants were then asked how their characteristics position them to address 11 important political problems. While there was a difference in opinion, Gagnier goes on to say that at a summit held for Millennial research revealed that Millennials believe they are uniquely positioned to handle political issues (p. 33). Gagnier noted that these self-identified characteristics enabled the millennial generation to bring attention to issues, bring diverse solutions, and allow the generation to network, make connections faster, and break down barriers, (Gagnier, 2008, p. 33). The Millennial participants in at this summit wrote the statement We, the Millennial Generation, are uniquely positioned to call attention to todays issues and shape the future based o n the great legacy we have inherited, (Gagnier, 2008, p. 33). Despite the positive attitude of Millennials, they may not be educated on political topics because the information they receive through social media may be inaccurate.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Trafficking A Modern Day Slavery - 961 Words

Morgan Pleasants Mrs. Tomasino English IV Nov. 23 2015 How to Stop Trafficking Women are not the only ones being sold today. Man are not the only ones selling humans today. All different kinds of humans are being sold in something called human trafficking. Human trafficking has become a problem worldwide and is effecting all people male, female, children, LGBT. There are many solutions, one of them is to educate the children at a younger age. Human trafficking is like a modern day slavery. The people being sold are forced in to many different things. The U.S. Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons have found eight different types of trafficking which are: forced labor, sex trafficking, bonded labor, debt bondage among migrant laborers, involuntary domestic servitude, forced child labor, child soldiers, child sex trafficking. (Hill,Wuske) This shows the different kinds of people being effected in human trafficking. Trafficking is happening everywhere in the world. The top 4 states in the US being effected are California, Texas, Florida and New York. Between 2010 and 2012, California’s task forces initiated 2,552 investigations into human trafficking, identified 1,277 victims, and arrested 1,798 individuals. 957 suspected victims and 1,057 suspected human trafficking incidents have been reported by Texas-based reporting agencies to federal databases since 2007. New York was the first state to pass a safe harbor law in 2008, this help make sure that children are notShow MoreRelatedModern Day Slavery: Human Trafficking 866 Words   |  4 PagesBlood Borne Connections.) Human trafficking is the modern day slavery, it involves taking control over a person through force, fraud or coercion to exploit the victim for forced labor, sexual exploitation. or both (â€Å"What† par.1). This is become the sad reality for many, approximately three out of every 1,000 people worldwide are being forced into this such slavery. Victims of human trafficking are people of all backgrounds and ages, no one is safe from the dirty hands of human traffickers. Every yearRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery1244 Words   |  5 Pages Human trafficking Around the world human trafficking happens around us without us noticing or realising what is happening. Modern-day slavery exists around the world and it is known today as human trafficking or trafficking in persons. So, what is human trafficking and why don t many people seek for help or go to athoughty ? Well human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. Every year millionsRead MoreHuman Trafficking And The Modern Day Slavery Essay1006 Words   |  5 Pagesfield of criminal justice, and is known as the modern day slavery. This paper will also discuss the globalization in human trafficking. The study examines the impact of economic globalization on the human trafficking inflows around the world. This paper will begin by providing the definition of what human trafficking and globalization is, and how it works within the context of law enforcement. The history of human trafficking and how human trafficking is effecting societies across the world. ThisRead MoreHuman Trafficking And Modern Day Slavery Essay1390 Words   |  6 PagesHuman Trafficking There is an ever growing problem that is coursing the world. Every day 3,287 people are sold or kidnapped, and are forced into slavery. (Human Trafficking Statistics Reports 2012) Most people do not realize that modern-day slavery happens closer to home than they think. 14,000-17,500 is the estimated number of people trafficked into the United States each year. (Human Trafficking Statistics Reports 2012) The government has tried to reduce this problem as well as everyday peopleRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery1604 Words   |  7 PagesHuman Trafficking One of the most serious crimes worldwide, human trafficking is the buying, selling, and transportation of people for the use of sexual exploitation, forced labor, or organ removal. â€Å"Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act.† (What is human trafficking Homeland) It happens in the United States and foreign countries. Many people do not see it happening, but in fact it is happeningRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery1531 Words   |  7 PagesHuman trafficking is modern day slavery that occurs with both genders of all ages. Human trafficking occurs mostly in poorer countries like Asia, and Eastern Europe and isn t solely sexual slavery; the victims can be used for labor purposes also. Organizations like Shared Hope International and Coalition Against Trafficking in Women fight to rescue the victims of human trafficking. These organizations spread the dangers of hum an trafficking through education and public awareness. Often times traffickingRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery1228 Words   |  5 Pages Around the world human trafficking happens around us without us noticing or realising what is happening. Modern-day slavery exists around the world and it is known today as human trafficking or trafficking in persons. So, what is human trafficking and why don t many people seek for help or go to athoughty ? Well human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. Every year millions of men and woman andRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery1732 Words   |  7 PagesHaley Gooding Mrs. Gallos English 3 Honors 6 April 2017 Human Trafficking One of the most serious crimes worldwide, human trafficking is the buying, selling, and transportation of people for the use of sexual exploitation, forced labor, or organ removal. â€Å"Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act.† (What is human trafficking Homeland) It happens in the United States and foreign countries. Many peopleRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery1210 Words   |  5 PagesHuman Trafficking Imagine being able to own a business and make nothing but profit. One of the types of trafficking is Labor Trafficking, which helps keep prices cheaper by having cheap workers. If companies do not have people working in factories for very little then a lot of prices would go up crazy like on clothing and furniture. A lot of countries economy are built off sex trafficking which helps the economy significantly. The ongoing â€Å"phenomenon† of human trafficking is not a problemRead MoreHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Slavery Essay1389 Words   |  6 PagesPedraza Human Trafficking Human Trafficking Defined Human Trafficking is â€Å"modern day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act† as defined by the Department of Homeland Security. It is largely unrecognized although it is one of the fastest growing criminal industries. It traffics children, teenagers, and adults. Human Trafficking comes second to drug dealing. There is human trafficking for sexual exploitation, trafficking of organ

Legal independence of Australia legislature-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Construct a timeline of the development of legal independence of the legislature in Australia from the time of settlement to the present day, indicating important steps and the means by which the step was taken, through legislation or some other event. 2.Construct a timeline of the development of legal independence of the court system in Australia from the time of settlement to the present day, indicating important steps and the means by which the step was taken, through legislation or some other event. 3.Write a short essay on the importance and effect of the Colonial Laws Validity Act 28 29 Vict. c 63 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4. Answers: 1.Before the phase of settlement Europeans merely acted as explorers. When James Cook in 1770 covered the east coast line of Australia he claimed that the exploration was made in relation to a British territory. It was clear that no consultation had been done with the indigenous people along with entrance if no treaty. The act of James cook had been justified years latter through the doctrine of terra nullius (the land to nobody). In 1785 Orders-in-Council were issued by London which initiated the establishment of a colony in Botany Bay. Arthur Philip who had been appointed the governor-designate of the newly formed colony in 1786 created a detailed memorandum establishing that the laws of UK would be applicable in Australia and no slavery was allowed. In the year 1827 the first test of the doctrine was initiated in the court of NSW in the case of R v Tommy,[1827] NSWSupC 70 Supreme Court of NSW (24 November 1827) according to the case only when the issue was related to natives and the settlers were the natives imposed on by British laws. The New South Wales Act 1823 (UK) had been passed to proclaim Tasmania as a spate colony for that of NSW. The Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 was passed to establish a relationship between colonial and imperial legislations. According to the legislation the colonial act was fully effective in the respective colony however is should not have any contradictory law to the imperial legislations. The legislation provided authority to colonial law making however in addition established that they are subordinate to the British parliament. The first formal step towards making the colonies federal was through the Federal Council of Australasia in the year 1885. However it was a weal and non legislative step. Two constitutional conventions had been initiated and adopted a constitution derived from American, British and other models. The constitution was provided approval by the six colonial voters. The constitution was then passed alongside some amendments which included provisions of appeals to the London Privy Council in form of a British parliament Act and came to be known as the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1990. The legislation was initiated on 1st January 1901 and marked the beginning of the commonwealth of Australia. However it was latter imposed by the British government that any Australian law would be eligible to be replaced by British monarchs within a year but this power was never exercised. In the mid 1920s the British governments established full legislative autonomy of the dominions. The legislative effect was given to this rule in the year 1931 through the Statue of Westminster 1931. The effect by the statue was taken in the year 1942 when the Statue of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 passed. The application of the legislation repealed the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865. The legislation was in force till it was repealed by the Australian Act 1986. The legislation terminated effectively the power of the British government or parliament to enact laws for Australia. The legislation ensured that any law which previously required British assent could be passed by the Australian parliament. 2.The legal system of Australia had been developed in accordance to the legal system of Britain which was included in the system as a part of making Australia a British colony. A limited right had been granted by the British Parliament to the colonies to set up a local court system. Thus every colony had been provided to power to make laws in order to deal with specific situations. Thus separate development of laws and legal system was initiated in each colony. The concept of judicial independence which is presently established initiated in the year 1701. One of the central pillars of the Australian legal system is judicial independence. The Charter of justice was passed on 2nd April 1787 (UK) with respect to an Australian system of law. The colony of NSW had been established in 1788 after the NSW courts Act 1787 had been passed to keep the convicts under control. The colonel Collins commission (NSW) was passed on 14th January 1803 through which a convict system had been established by David Collins at Hobart. On 2nd April 1814 the Second Charter of Justice of New South Wales established the NSW supreme court of Civil Judicature. In the year 1823 the charter of Justice (UK) was passed on 13th October through which the Ad Hoc legal system of Australia had been subjected to regular procedures. In the year 1828 the Australian Courts Act 1828 (UK) was passed bringing the trial by jury to a stay. In the year 1903 the Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) was passed through which a high court was gained by Australia but it lost the prime minister. In the year 1933 ACT Supreme Court Act 1933 (Cth) was passed through which a supreme court had been created. The appeals to the privy council by the high court were abolished through the efforts of the Privy Council (Appeals from the High Court) Act 1975 and Privy Council (Limitation of Appeals) Act 1968. In the year 1980 Coastal Waters (State Powers) Act 1980 (Cth) was passed which initiated a new High court building in Canberra by Queen Elizabeth II. The Australian Act 1986 (Cth) undid the old constitutional ties and initiated a strong step towards the independence of judiciary from the British rule. Under the chapter III of the constitution judicial breach of the government had been set out. The high court of Australia which was the federal Supreme Court was established through section 71 of the constitution. The court had been provided the power to govern its own activities in 1980 through the High Court of Australia Act 1979. The district court of NSW had commenced from 1st July 1973 through the passing of the District Court Act1973(NSW). 3.The British during the period of 1700-1900 made many colonies and within them introduced their own legal system. Various laws were passed by the British parliament in order to ensure that British supremacy continues to be established over the colonies. The purpose of this paper is to discuses two of such legislations namely the TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63)and the Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4. The paper discuses the importance and effects of the two legislations with respect to Australia. The Colonial Laws Validity was an act of British parliament. According to the title of the act it had been passed to abolish any doubts in relation to the colonial laws validity. The act purported to eradicate any visible inconsistency between colonial and British legislations. The act provided that the Colonial legislations which were passed in accordance to the provided procedures would have due effect in relation to the colony they have been passed in, however the provisions of such legislation should not be inconsistent to the provisions of any existing legislation of the British parliament. Any such provisions in colonial legislations were deemed to be invalid[1]. The effect of the legislation was such that the colonial legislatures had been provided with increased law a making powers however he supremacy of the British parliament was imposed upon them. Till the legislation was enacted a few local statues had been declared invalid by the judges on the grounds that they were not in consistent with an existing British legislation irrespective of the fact that such imperial legislations had the intention to be implemented in the colonies. The particular problem was causing serious issues in South Australia where on various occasions local laws were declared invalid by Justice Benjamin Boothby in the Supreme Court. It was accepted by the British till the year 1920 that full legislative authority has to be provided to the dominions and accordingly the statue of Statute of Westminster was passed repealing the provisions of the Colonial Laws Validity Act in Australia along with other counties like Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and NewFoundLand. The legislation was the first effort made by the British parliament to provide some apparent rights to the colonies towards law making. The rights are said to be apparent as the law made by the colonies would have been anyways in accordance to the law of the British parliament. Thus the colonies were provided an appreh ension that they have been provided with increased right whereas in reality the British parliament ensured supremacy without providing extra effort towards law making for the colonies. The Statue of Westminster has been modified in various ways so as to incorporate it within the legal system of Australia and other colonial countries[2]. The legislation has been repealed by New Zealand expressly and impliedly in those dominions which are no longer under the British. The act had immediate and in certain cases upon ratification effects through which the dominions governed by the British gained legal independence from being bound to consult the British parliament before making laws. Thus a statutory embodiment had been established based on equity which was set out in Balfour Declaration of 1926. It was the most significant step towards the making of Dominions in independent separate states[3]. The basis of the relationship which is continuing between the crown and the commonwealth realms is set out by the statue and this is its relevance in the present day. Certain political resolutions which had been passed by the Imperial Conferences of 1930 and 1926 particularly the Balfour Declaration of 1926 were given effect by the statue. The major effect of the statue was to abolish the power of the British parliament to make laws for the colonies which was provided by the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865[4]. It was expressed by King Gorge that the laws of succession should be exempted from the statue, however as such desires would have been against the principles of the Balfour declaration so it was rejected. Section 4 of the statue provided that no act passed by the British parliament after the commencement of this act would extend to or apprehended to be extended as a part of law for any dominion unless the dominion had consented to such laws[5]. Section 2-6 off the statue was adopted by Australia through the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 so that validity of specific legislation of Australia can be clarified. The adoption was done during the initiation of the world war. The adaption of section 2 by the commonwealth of Australia ensured that the Australian parliament could enact legislations which did not have to be consistent with British legislations. In addition the acceptance of section 3 of the statue ensured that the parliament could make legislations which had an extraterritorial effect. Section 4 ensured that only if Australia consented to such act could Britain legislate in relation to Australia[6]. The capacity of legislating in relation to those areas which were not within the scope of the constitution was still vested in the British parliament through section 9 but such capacity was never used[7]. However, the powers of the British parliament with respect to legislating for Australia came to an end by th e acceptance of the Australian Act 1986. Concluding the paper it can be provided that the TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) although only provided apparent powers to the colonies towards law making, it ensured that law making is initiated by the colonies themselves making them self sufficient in relation to laws. The colonies were not satisfied with the statue as it created a lot of issues where most of the legislations were declared inconsistent with the British laws even the British parliament did not intend to do so. The step towards gaining supreme law making power by Australia was initiated by the Westminster statue which abolished British indulgence in Australian law making. However not until the Australian Act was passed did Australia get official soverginity over law making. Bibliography Cunneen, Chris. "Colonial processes, indigenous peoples, and criminal justice systems." (2014). Day, David A., and David Day.Claiming a Continent. HarperCollins Australia, 2015. Lloyd, Clem, and Jacqui Rees.The last shilling: a history of repatriation in Australia. Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2017. Norton, P. (2015).Back from Westminster. University Press of Kentucky. Prokhovnik, Raia. "From sovereignty in Australia to Australian sovereignty."Political Studies63.2 (2015): 412-430. Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4 The Australian Act 1986 TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) Norton, P. (2015).Back from Westminster. University Press of Kentucky. Cunneen, Chris. "Colonial processes, indigenous peoples, and criminal justice systems." (2014). Prokhovnik, Raia. "From sovereignty in Australia to Australian sovereignty."Political Studies63.2 (2015): 412-430. Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4 Day, David A., and David Day.Claiming a Continent. HarperCollins Australia, 2015. Lloyd, Clem, and Jacqui Rees.The last shilling: a history of repatriation in Australia. Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2017.

Legal independence of Australia legislature-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Construct a timeline of the development of legal independence of the legislature in Australia from the time of settlement to the present day, indicating important steps and the means by which the step was taken, through legislation or some other event. 2.Construct a timeline of the development of legal independence of the court system in Australia from the time of settlement to the present day, indicating important steps and the means by which the step was taken, through legislation or some other event. 3.Write a short essay on the importance and effect of the Colonial Laws Validity Act 28 29 Vict. c 63 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4. Answers: 1.Before the phase of settlement Europeans merely acted as explorers. When James Cook in 1770 covered the east coast line of Australia he claimed that the exploration was made in relation to a British territory. It was clear that no consultation had been done with the indigenous people along with entrance if no treaty. The act of James cook had been justified years latter through the doctrine of terra nullius (the land to nobody). In 1785 Orders-in-Council were issued by London which initiated the establishment of a colony in Botany Bay. Arthur Philip who had been appointed the governor-designate of the newly formed colony in 1786 created a detailed memorandum establishing that the laws of UK would be applicable in Australia and no slavery was allowed. In the year 1827 the first test of the doctrine was initiated in the court of NSW in the case of R v Tommy,[1827] NSWSupC 70 Supreme Court of NSW (24 November 1827) according to the case only when the issue was related to natives and the settlers were the natives imposed on by British laws. The New South Wales Act 1823 (UK) had been passed to proclaim Tasmania as a spate colony for that of NSW. The Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 was passed to establish a relationship between colonial and imperial legislations. According to the legislation the colonial act was fully effective in the respective colony however is should not have any contradictory law to the imperial legislations. The legislation provided authority to colonial law making however in addition established that they are subordinate to the British parliament. The first formal step towards making the colonies federal was through the Federal Council of Australasia in the year 1885. However it was a weal and non legislative step. Two constitutional conventions had been initiated and adopted a constitution derived from American, British and other models. The constitution was provided approval by the six colonial voters. The constitution was then passed alongside some amendments which included provisions of appeals to the London Privy Council in form of a British parliament Act and came to be known as the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1990. The legislation was initiated on 1st January 1901 and marked the beginning of the commonwealth of Australia. However it was latter imposed by the British government that any Australian law would be eligible to be replaced by British monarchs within a year but this power was never exercised. In the mid 1920s the British governments established full legislative autonomy of the dominions. The legislative effect was given to this rule in the year 1931 through the Statue of Westminster 1931. The effect by the statue was taken in the year 1942 when the Statue of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 passed. The application of the legislation repealed the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865. The legislation was in force till it was repealed by the Australian Act 1986. The legislation terminated effectively the power of the British government or parliament to enact laws for Australia. The legislation ensured that any law which previously required British assent could be passed by the Australian parliament. 2.The legal system of Australia had been developed in accordance to the legal system of Britain which was included in the system as a part of making Australia a British colony. A limited right had been granted by the British Parliament to the colonies to set up a local court system. Thus every colony had been provided to power to make laws in order to deal with specific situations. Thus separate development of laws and legal system was initiated in each colony. The concept of judicial independence which is presently established initiated in the year 1701. One of the central pillars of the Australian legal system is judicial independence. The Charter of justice was passed on 2nd April 1787 (UK) with respect to an Australian system of law. The colony of NSW had been established in 1788 after the NSW courts Act 1787 had been passed to keep the convicts under control. The colonel Collins commission (NSW) was passed on 14th January 1803 through which a convict system had been established by David Collins at Hobart. On 2nd April 1814 the Second Charter of Justice of New South Wales established the NSW supreme court of Civil Judicature. In the year 1823 the charter of Justice (UK) was passed on 13th October through which the Ad Hoc legal system of Australia had been subjected to regular procedures. In the year 1828 the Australian Courts Act 1828 (UK) was passed bringing the trial by jury to a stay. In the year 1903 the Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) was passed through which a high court was gained by Australia but it lost the prime minister. In the year 1933 ACT Supreme Court Act 1933 (Cth) was passed through which a supreme court had been created. The appeals to the privy council by the high court were abolished through the efforts of the Privy Council (Appeals from the High Court) Act 1975 and Privy Council (Limitation of Appeals) Act 1968. In the year 1980 Coastal Waters (State Powers) Act 1980 (Cth) was passed which initiated a new High court building in Canberra by Queen Elizabeth II. The Australian Act 1986 (Cth) undid the old constitutional ties and initiated a strong step towards the independence of judiciary from the British rule. Under the chapter III of the constitution judicial breach of the government had been set out. The high court of Australia which was the federal Supreme Court was established through section 71 of the constitution. The court had been provided the power to govern its own activities in 1980 through the High Court of Australia Act 1979. The district court of NSW had commenced from 1st July 1973 through the passing of the District Court Act1973(NSW). 3.The British during the period of 1700-1900 made many colonies and within them introduced their own legal system. Various laws were passed by the British parliament in order to ensure that British supremacy continues to be established over the colonies. The purpose of this paper is to discuses two of such legislations namely the TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63)and the Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4. The paper discuses the importance and effects of the two legislations with respect to Australia. The Colonial Laws Validity was an act of British parliament. According to the title of the act it had been passed to abolish any doubts in relation to the colonial laws validity. The act purported to eradicate any visible inconsistency between colonial and British legislations. The act provided that the Colonial legislations which were passed in accordance to the provided procedures would have due effect in relation to the colony they have been passed in, however the provisions of such legislation should not be inconsistent to the provisions of any existing legislation of the British parliament. Any such provisions in colonial legislations were deemed to be invalid[1]. The effect of the legislation was such that the colonial legislatures had been provided with increased law a making powers however he supremacy of the British parliament was imposed upon them. Till the legislation was enacted a few local statues had been declared invalid by the judges on the grounds that they were not in consistent with an existing British legislation irrespective of the fact that such imperial legislations had the intention to be implemented in the colonies. The particular problem was causing serious issues in South Australia where on various occasions local laws were declared invalid by Justice Benjamin Boothby in the Supreme Court. It was accepted by the British till the year 1920 that full legislative authority has to be provided to the dominions and accordingly the statue of Statute of Westminster was passed repealing the provisions of the Colonial Laws Validity Act in Australia along with other counties like Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and NewFoundLand. The legislation was the first effort made by the British parliament to provide some apparent rights to the colonies towards law making. The rights are said to be apparent as the law made by the colonies would have been anyways in accordance to the law of the British parliament. Thus the colonies were provided an appreh ension that they have been provided with increased right whereas in reality the British parliament ensured supremacy without providing extra effort towards law making for the colonies. The Statue of Westminster has been modified in various ways so as to incorporate it within the legal system of Australia and other colonial countries[2]. The legislation has been repealed by New Zealand expressly and impliedly in those dominions which are no longer under the British. The act had immediate and in certain cases upon ratification effects through which the dominions governed by the British gained legal independence from being bound to consult the British parliament before making laws. Thus a statutory embodiment had been established based on equity which was set out in Balfour Declaration of 1926. It was the most significant step towards the making of Dominions in independent separate states[3]. The basis of the relationship which is continuing between the crown and the commonwealth realms is set out by the statue and this is its relevance in the present day. Certain political resolutions which had been passed by the Imperial Conferences of 1930 and 1926 particularly the Balfour Declaration of 1926 were given effect by the statue. The major effect of the statue was to abolish the power of the British parliament to make laws for the colonies which was provided by the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865[4]. It was expressed by King Gorge that the laws of succession should be exempted from the statue, however as such desires would have been against the principles of the Balfour declaration so it was rejected. Section 4 of the statue provided that no act passed by the British parliament after the commencement of this act would extend to or apprehended to be extended as a part of law for any dominion unless the dominion had consented to such laws[5]. Section 2-6 off the statue was adopted by Australia through the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 so that validity of specific legislation of Australia can be clarified. The adoption was done during the initiation of the world war. The adaption of section 2 by the commonwealth of Australia ensured that the Australian parliament could enact legislations which did not have to be consistent with British legislations. In addition the acceptance of section 3 of the statue ensured that the parliament could make legislations which had an extraterritorial effect. Section 4 ensured that only if Australia consented to such act could Britain legislate in relation to Australia[6]. The capacity of legislating in relation to those areas which were not within the scope of the constitution was still vested in the British parliament through section 9 but such capacity was never used[7]. However, the powers of the British parliament with respect to legislating for Australia came to an end by th e acceptance of the Australian Act 1986. Concluding the paper it can be provided that the TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) although only provided apparent powers to the colonies towards law making, it ensured that law making is initiated by the colonies themselves making them self sufficient in relation to laws. The colonies were not satisfied with the statue as it created a lot of issues where most of the legislations were declared inconsistent with the British laws even the British parliament did not intend to do so. The step towards gaining supreme law making power by Australia was initiated by the Westminster statue which abolished British indulgence in Australian law making. However not until the Australian Act was passed did Australia get official soverginity over law making. Bibliography Cunneen, Chris. "Colonial processes, indigenous peoples, and criminal justice systems." (2014). Day, David A., and David Day.Claiming a Continent. HarperCollins Australia, 2015. Lloyd, Clem, and Jacqui Rees.The last shilling: a history of repatriation in Australia. Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2017. Norton, P. (2015).Back from Westminster. University Press of Kentucky. Prokhovnik, Raia. "From sovereignty in Australia to Australian sovereignty."Political Studies63.2 (2015): 412-430. Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4 The Australian Act 1986 TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) Norton, P. (2015).Back from Westminster. University Press of Kentucky. Cunneen, Chris. "Colonial processes, indigenous peoples, and criminal justice systems." (2014). Prokhovnik, Raia. "From sovereignty in Australia to Australian sovereignty."Political Studies63.2 (2015): 412-430. Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4 Day, David A., and David Day.Claiming a Continent. HarperCollins Australia, 2015. Lloyd, Clem, and Jacqui Rees.The last shilling: a history of repatriation in Australia. Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2017.

Legal independence of Australia legislature-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Construct a timeline of the development of legal independence of the legislature in Australia from the time of settlement to the present day, indicating important steps and the means by which the step was taken, through legislation or some other event. 2.Construct a timeline of the development of legal independence of the court system in Australia from the time of settlement to the present day, indicating important steps and the means by which the step was taken, through legislation or some other event. 3.Write a short essay on the importance and effect of the Colonial Laws Validity Act 28 29 Vict. c 63 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4. Answers: 1.Before the phase of settlement Europeans merely acted as explorers. When James Cook in 1770 covered the east coast line of Australia he claimed that the exploration was made in relation to a British territory. It was clear that no consultation had been done with the indigenous people along with entrance if no treaty. The act of James cook had been justified years latter through the doctrine of terra nullius (the land to nobody). In 1785 Orders-in-Council were issued by London which initiated the establishment of a colony in Botany Bay. Arthur Philip who had been appointed the governor-designate of the newly formed colony in 1786 created a detailed memorandum establishing that the laws of UK would be applicable in Australia and no slavery was allowed. In the year 1827 the first test of the doctrine was initiated in the court of NSW in the case of R v Tommy,[1827] NSWSupC 70 Supreme Court of NSW (24 November 1827) according to the case only when the issue was related to natives and the settlers were the natives imposed on by British laws. The New South Wales Act 1823 (UK) had been passed to proclaim Tasmania as a spate colony for that of NSW. The Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 was passed to establish a relationship between colonial and imperial legislations. According to the legislation the colonial act was fully effective in the respective colony however is should not have any contradictory law to the imperial legislations. The legislation provided authority to colonial law making however in addition established that they are subordinate to the British parliament. The first formal step towards making the colonies federal was through the Federal Council of Australasia in the year 1885. However it was a weal and non legislative step. Two constitutional conventions had been initiated and adopted a constitution derived from American, British and other models. The constitution was provided approval by the six colonial voters. The constitution was then passed alongside some amendments which included provisions of appeals to the London Privy Council in form of a British parliament Act and came to be known as the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1990. The legislation was initiated on 1st January 1901 and marked the beginning of the commonwealth of Australia. However it was latter imposed by the British government that any Australian law would be eligible to be replaced by British monarchs within a year but this power was never exercised. In the mid 1920s the British governments established full legislative autonomy of the dominions. The legislative effect was given to this rule in the year 1931 through the Statue of Westminster 1931. The effect by the statue was taken in the year 1942 when the Statue of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 passed. The application of the legislation repealed the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865. The legislation was in force till it was repealed by the Australian Act 1986. The legislation terminated effectively the power of the British government or parliament to enact laws for Australia. The legislation ensured that any law which previously required British assent could be passed by the Australian parliament. 2.The legal system of Australia had been developed in accordance to the legal system of Britain which was included in the system as a part of making Australia a British colony. A limited right had been granted by the British Parliament to the colonies to set up a local court system. Thus every colony had been provided to power to make laws in order to deal with specific situations. Thus separate development of laws and legal system was initiated in each colony. The concept of judicial independence which is presently established initiated in the year 1701. One of the central pillars of the Australian legal system is judicial independence. The Charter of justice was passed on 2nd April 1787 (UK) with respect to an Australian system of law. The colony of NSW had been established in 1788 after the NSW courts Act 1787 had been passed to keep the convicts under control. The colonel Collins commission (NSW) was passed on 14th January 1803 through which a convict system had been established by David Collins at Hobart. On 2nd April 1814 the Second Charter of Justice of New South Wales established the NSW supreme court of Civil Judicature. In the year 1823 the charter of Justice (UK) was passed on 13th October through which the Ad Hoc legal system of Australia had been subjected to regular procedures. In the year 1828 the Australian Courts Act 1828 (UK) was passed bringing the trial by jury to a stay. In the year 1903 the Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth) was passed through which a high court was gained by Australia but it lost the prime minister. In the year 1933 ACT Supreme Court Act 1933 (Cth) was passed through which a supreme court had been created. The appeals to the privy council by the high court were abolished through the efforts of the Privy Council (Appeals from the High Court) Act 1975 and Privy Council (Limitation of Appeals) Act 1968. In the year 1980 Coastal Waters (State Powers) Act 1980 (Cth) was passed which initiated a new High court building in Canberra by Queen Elizabeth II. The Australian Act 1986 (Cth) undid the old constitutional ties and initiated a strong step towards the independence of judiciary from the British rule. Under the chapter III of the constitution judicial breach of the government had been set out. The high court of Australia which was the federal Supreme Court was established through section 71 of the constitution. The court had been provided the power to govern its own activities in 1980 through the High Court of Australia Act 1979. The district court of NSW had commenced from 1st July 1973 through the passing of the District Court Act1973(NSW). 3.The British during the period of 1700-1900 made many colonies and within them introduced their own legal system. Various laws were passed by the British parliament in order to ensure that British supremacy continues to be established over the colonies. The purpose of this paper is to discuses two of such legislations namely the TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63)and the Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4. The paper discuses the importance and effects of the two legislations with respect to Australia. The Colonial Laws Validity was an act of British parliament. According to the title of the act it had been passed to abolish any doubts in relation to the colonial laws validity. The act purported to eradicate any visible inconsistency between colonial and British legislations. The act provided that the Colonial legislations which were passed in accordance to the provided procedures would have due effect in relation to the colony they have been passed in, however the provisions of such legislation should not be inconsistent to the provisions of any existing legislation of the British parliament. Any such provisions in colonial legislations were deemed to be invalid[1]. The effect of the legislation was such that the colonial legislatures had been provided with increased law a making powers however he supremacy of the British parliament was imposed upon them. Till the legislation was enacted a few local statues had been declared invalid by the judges on the grounds that they were not in consistent with an existing British legislation irrespective of the fact that such imperial legislations had the intention to be implemented in the colonies. The particular problem was causing serious issues in South Australia where on various occasions local laws were declared invalid by Justice Benjamin Boothby in the Supreme Court. It was accepted by the British till the year 1920 that full legislative authority has to be provided to the dominions and accordingly the statue of Statute of Westminster was passed repealing the provisions of the Colonial Laws Validity Act in Australia along with other counties like Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and NewFoundLand. The legislation was the first effort made by the British parliament to provide some apparent rights to the colonies towards law making. The rights are said to be apparent as the law made by the colonies would have been anyways in accordance to the law of the British parliament. Thus the colonies were provided an appreh ension that they have been provided with increased right whereas in reality the British parliament ensured supremacy without providing extra effort towards law making for the colonies. The Statue of Westminster has been modified in various ways so as to incorporate it within the legal system of Australia and other colonial countries[2]. The legislation has been repealed by New Zealand expressly and impliedly in those dominions which are no longer under the British. The act had immediate and in certain cases upon ratification effects through which the dominions governed by the British gained legal independence from being bound to consult the British parliament before making laws. Thus a statutory embodiment had been established based on equity which was set out in Balfour Declaration of 1926. It was the most significant step towards the making of Dominions in independent separate states[3]. The basis of the relationship which is continuing between the crown and the commonwealth realms is set out by the statue and this is its relevance in the present day. Certain political resolutions which had been passed by the Imperial Conferences of 1930 and 1926 particularly the Balfour Declaration of 1926 were given effect by the statue. The major effect of the statue was to abolish the power of the British parliament to make laws for the colonies which was provided by the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865[4]. It was expressed by King Gorge that the laws of succession should be exempted from the statue, however as such desires would have been against the principles of the Balfour declaration so it was rejected. Section 4 of the statue provided that no act passed by the British parliament after the commencement of this act would extend to or apprehended to be extended as a part of law for any dominion unless the dominion had consented to such laws[5]. Section 2-6 off the statue was adopted by Australia through the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 so that validity of specific legislation of Australia can be clarified. The adoption was done during the initiation of the world war. The adaption of section 2 by the commonwealth of Australia ensured that the Australian parliament could enact legislations which did not have to be consistent with British legislations. In addition the acceptance of section 3 of the statue ensured that the parliament could make legislations which had an extraterritorial effect. Section 4 ensured that only if Australia consented to such act could Britain legislate in relation to Australia[6]. The capacity of legislating in relation to those areas which were not within the scope of the constitution was still vested in the British parliament through section 9 but such capacity was never used[7]. However, the powers of the British parliament with respect to legislating for Australia came to an end by th e acceptance of the Australian Act 1986. Concluding the paper it can be provided that the TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) although only provided apparent powers to the colonies towards law making, it ensured that law making is initiated by the colonies themselves making them self sufficient in relation to laws. The colonies were not satisfied with the statue as it created a lot of issues where most of the legislations were declared inconsistent with the British laws even the British parliament did not intend to do so. The step towards gaining supreme law making power by Australia was initiated by the Westminster statue which abolished British indulgence in Australian law making. However not until the Australian Act was passed did Australia get official soverginity over law making. Bibliography Cunneen, Chris. "Colonial processes, indigenous peoples, and criminal justice systems." (2014). Day, David A., and David Day.Claiming a Continent. HarperCollins Australia, 2015. Lloyd, Clem, and Jacqui Rees.The last shilling: a history of repatriation in Australia. Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2017. Norton, P. (2015).Back from Westminster. University Press of Kentucky. Prokhovnik, Raia. "From sovereignty in Australia to Australian sovereignty."Political Studies63.2 (2015): 412-430. Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4 The Australian Act 1986 TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) TheColonial Laws Validity Act 1865(28 29 Vict. c. 63) Norton, P. (2015).Back from Westminster. University Press of Kentucky. Cunneen, Chris. "Colonial processes, indigenous peoples, and criminal justice systems." (2014). Prokhovnik, Raia. "From sovereignty in Australia to Australian sovereignty."Political Studies63.2 (2015): 412-430. Statute of Westminster 1931 (Imp) 22 23 Geo 5 c 4 Day, David A., and David Day.Claiming a Continent. HarperCollins Australia, 2015. Lloyd, Clem, and Jacqui Rees.The last shilling: a history of repatriation in Australia. Melbourne Univ. Publishing, 2017.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Play Therapy free essay sample

An analysis of different methods of play therapy and their successes and failures when dealing with children. This paper is a detailed examination of play therapy and its purpose. The writer provides an understanding of what play therapy is and how it is administered. The author describes how it is mainly used with young children who are too young to participate in an adult-like therapy setting. The paper details the process involved in the administering of this type of therapy, including the setting, the duration of the sessions, the method of evaluation and in what situations this therapy is used most successfully. The paper then discusses the different types of therapy and when to apply them. Research has determined that this type of therapy is most effective for children between the ages of 2 and 10. The therapy is effective in this age range because it is the age range in which children communicate best through play and do not communicate as effectively through their verbal skills. We will write a custom essay sample on Play Therapy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The children are encouraged to choose any toy they want from the hundreds of choices presented in the therapist office. They are also encouraged to play in a sand box in the office because sand has been shown to be relaxing for the patient.